With the development of technology as well as agriculture inputs, manufacturing in agriculture has boosted by many folds. For satisfying the rising need of food supply, the conventional crop ranges have been changed by the high yielding ranges. Green revolution occurred in the country many thanks to boosted seed varieties, use of chemical plant foods, development of watering facilities and so on. It is indisputable that this transformation came with the regrettable and unexpected price of standard crop varieties, natural consistency and eco-friendly equilibrium. Manufacturing prices for plants have actually chaotically leaped, damaging the backbone of the marginal as well as tiny farmers. The succeeding regimens can be pleased with the increased manufacturing of crops, but let’s not fail to remember that the population has actually practically doubled in the last 3 years, and costs of basics have tripled. Populace development and costs of essentials with each other have actually much exceeded farming production.
People in significant number have moved from villages to towns for different revenue choices. Migration has a definite connection with agricultural manufacturing and rising cost of living. It has long been suggested that our land has shed fertility as a result of unplanned intervention, wrong growing practices, and also poor as well as unacceptable state administration plan. The farmers and also their typical techniques can be examined but it holds true that they are always entrusted what they have, and with little or no assistance, and also with excruciating boost in, as well as deficiency of agriculture inputs. The reality was found throughout our observation at the area degree (January – March 2011), for example, at Kushtia area. The peasants claim, there was a time 7/8 years back when they used to get 20 maunds (neighborhood weight measurement system; 40 kgs make 1 maund) of rice per bigha (area dimension unit; roughly 1 bigha makes 0.33 acre), now they get 7/8 maunds on the average. It’s tough, otherwise difficult, for the tiny as well as marginal land holders to depend on land outcomes (plants) entirely for their family costs anymore.
Now the concern develops here – if the farming production, i.e., its return is far less than family members expense, just how do the farmhouses endure?
Without much explanation of peasants’ challenge, vulnerability, and income choices, we see the inner movement of professions of farmhouse members to non-farm tasks and also manufacturing facility or market wage workers. The farmhouses have actually picked livestock rearing on business basis, shop-keeping etc., and also the farmhouse members have actually chosen wage labors in mills, workshops, factories, as well as sectors. This sensation has actually cut dependence of the farmhouses on earnings from farming crops, and has actually loosened up concern on their possession of little landholdings. The farmhouse members remaining quite in the houses can satisfy their very own expenses, as well as periodically, instead purchase farming production. It is noted that the poor capital of our farmhouses constricts farm administration as well as crop diversity, which ultimately and also regularly results in bad farm production.
Here are 4 study from the very same town. In the very first case study (household-1), the farmer suffers as a result of absence of financial investment capital, without any off-farm income earners in the household. In the 2nd and also 3rd case studies (household-2,3), the farmhouses are succeeding thanks to the involvement of the home members in bordering sectors. According to the fourth case study (household-4) even the landless farmer with boosted labor earnings and also non-farm task is improving his lifestyle.
In 2010, Mr. Nuruddin (head of household-1) of town Kathulia town of Kushtia district generated maize, hemp, paddy (of varieties Gazi, BR-33), til (sesame) and also papaya. He invested a total of BDT (Tk.) 50600 (USD 1 = BDT 70 roughly), as well as got a web return of Tk. 30000. He offered out paddy straws, hemp stems, a goat, bamboos as well as jack fruits and made Tk. 18200. So, his complete revenue throughout the year stood at Tk. 48200, while his family members expenditure for the same year was approximated at Tk. 56500.
Mr. Nuruddin, an old guy of 80, has actually got his 4 children wed away from village. Round the year the loved ones see them, which boost the family members expenses. Additionally, he has to provide little monetary help to them once in a while, and send out some ranch and also homestead items to the little girls’ homes over the last few years. So, they run family with restraints with food lack almost yearly. His only boy is a public university student, however helps him in farming every now and then. Nuruddin’s other half grows various leafy vegetables on homestead round the year for home intakes.
For monetary constraints due to little girls’ marital relationship, loved ones’ go to etc., he might not make larger investment to grow profitable plants, and can’t take good treatment of his plants. So, he normally obtains reduced harvest, and can not purchase livestock. He took a bank loan of Tk. 25000 in 2004, yet invested all for household purposes, and also can not pay off the finance in time. In 2008, the funding amount stood at Tk. 37000 with interest, which he might not repay. So, with the advice of a bank area officer, he got another loan of Tk. 39000, from which he repaid his previous due finance. At the end of 2010 the secondly due funding stood at around Tk. 43000 again. He does not understand just how to pay back this quantity. At the end of 2010, he broke down 2 bighas of arrive at kot (local land leasing system) for Tk. 100000. He states, “Besides impressive bank loans, annually I have a shortage of Tk. 4000-5000. I have likewise little fundings from NGOs, which I repay with challenge, however exceptional small business loan allow stress for me”.
Nuruddin’s kid included, “Farmers obtain bank loans and finish them rapidly to fulfill food and other persisting family requirements without thinking much that they need to repay it in time, and that’s the method the finances can be found in bigger amount in some years with included passions, for which farmers market out lands at last oftentimes.”
Rm. Arshed Ali (head of household-2) generated rice of various selections consisting of Gazi, IRRI-10 as well as 28. He obtained a harvest of 90 maunds (3600 kgs) worth Tk. 77100. He invested Tk. 29250 for production. His internet return was Tk. 47850. He also produced eggplants of 30 maunds (1200 kgs) worth Tk. 15600. He spent Tk. 7000 for this production as well as obtained an internet return of Tk. 8600. He invested Tk. 2000 to create 10 maunds (400 kgs) of cabbage worth Tk. 5000 with a net return of Tk. 3000. He sold paddy straws at Tk. 12000. From all the plants of his cultivated land he made a net return of Tk. 71450 in 2010.
In 2010, he raised livestock and made a web return of Tk. 50000 with a financial investment of Tk. 350000, in which Tk. 30000 is estimated as unsettled house labor.
Arshed’s one boy aged 30 with high school level education is a factory worker. Presently, he earns a total amount of Tk. 60000 in a year. The household makes a total amount of Tk. 181450 annually from both farm creates, cattle as well as non-farm earning, while the family expenditure is estimated at Tk. 180000.
In 2009, Arshed leased in a fish ranch, and but can not make profit from it, which year he had a herbal medicine shop in the village market. From this business he constructed from earnings of around 30000. He additionally works in the village as a moderator in numerous arbitration and also lawsuits, from which he has an earnings, which can not be approximated. Nonetheless, from these included in this earnings from livestock rearing, he made a block residence in 2009-2010.
He said, “With traditional crop production with small area of land, we can not run our family members. Given that I need to keep a family condition, as well as some visitors also come usually, so my family expense is likewise high compared to others. That’s why I think of earning from various resources.”
Mr. Abdur Rahim (head of household-3) generated rice of different ranges consisting of Gazi, IRRI-10, 11, 12, 9. He got a harvest of 78 maunds (3120 kgs) worth Tk. 54200. He invested Tk. 31477 for production. His net return was Tk. 22723. He also created hemp of 8 maunds (320 kgs) worth Tk. 12000. He invested Tk. 4000 for this manufacturing as well as got a net return of Tk. 8000. He generated onion (2 maunds = 80 kgs) worth Tk. 2000 as well as garlic (1.5 maunds = 60 kgs) worth Tk. 6000. For manufacturing of both onion as well as garlic he invested Tk. 2000, and from these he made a net return of Tk. 6000. He marketed paddy straws as well as jute stems at Tk. 20000. From all the plants of his cultivated land he made a net return of Tk. 56723 in 2010.
In 2010, he raised livestock as well as made an internet return of Tk. 47000 with an investment of Tk. 20000.
Rahim’s two sons, one aged 32 without any official education and learning, and also the other aged 30 with senior high school level education and learning, are factory laborers. Currently, they gain an overall of Tk. 156000 in a year. The family gains an overall of Tk. 259723 from both farm generates, cattle as well as non-farm earning, while the household expenditure is estimated at Tk. 199700. This year (2011) he takes one more 15 kathas (area dimension unit; 1 katha makes roughly 1.6 decimals) of land on kot at Tk. 70000.
Around 15 years back, Rahim parted from moms and dads, and also started his little family on his very own. That time he had 3 bighas of land. He purchased another 3 bighas of land in the last one decade. He acquired land pieces of 10/12 kathas each at once at Tk. around 20000-30000 per bighas. 2 years back, he created block residence with a cost of around Tk. 300000.
He said, “Revenue from land is dropping currently. When we got around 20 maunds of rice per bigha. In 2015 we created 8-10 maunds of rice per bigha. Family members revenue mostly originates from cattle and also goats. With this income, I do this that, acquire and enhance things. Cash for house construction also originated from cattle rearing. Besides, the senior child operates in business for last 2 years, and also the younger one benefits 4/5 years. They include in the earnings. They aid run household. ”
Akram Hossain (head of household-4) owns no Smile Farm land in any way, however he maintains land for farming each year. Over years he gives labor to agriculture ranches and runs his household with labor earnings. He raises livestock and goat annually, and thus makes some earnings out of it. In 2010, he gained around Tk. 54000 from wage labors at Tk. 150 daily as well as at Tk. 4500 on the ordinary monthly. In 2010, he kept 4 bighas of come down on kot. From the manufacturing of rice and wheat, he made an earnings of Tk. 22260 and Tk. 4900 specifically. He also gained Tk. 7200 from sale of paddy straws. From cattle raising throughout the year, he got a web return of Tk. 15000. He additionally gave out one and half bighas of land for share cropping, from where he obtained his share of plant worth Tk. 6000. From both farm manufacturings, livestock rearing as well as labor salaries, he made a total of Tk. 109360. His household expenditure is computed at Tk. 71000 for many years 2010.
When inquired about his earning as well as farm manufacturing, he said, “The rice I get from growing remains mostly for family consumption over a year. I offer out other plants. My main source of income is farm labor, and also livestock and goat rearing. I can birth the education and learning costs of my child of class 7, as well as additionally can save some cash for following year investment for cattle.”
The various other farmers speaking about Akram commented that Akram does not have to market out crops given that he earns from labor salaries to satisfy household expenses. They likewise claimed, individuals like him in the village are doing well nowadays. They are at stable condition.
Side-by-side with the large industries, expansion of small range sectors at the semi-urban areas beside rural areas with appropriate focus to ecological issues and safety measures in all districts, perhaps at all upazilas as well as union degrees (neighborhood administrative units), can create higher work of the farmhouse members. Regional people think of their very own ingenious ideas as well as business, which hire rural young people. In many cases, the big business individuals and interest groups are located acting as well as propagating versus little industries. Neighborhood public officials (line ministries) can resolve such dilemmas if any, and also motivate the small business owners at metropolitan outskirts adjacent to rural areas, with incentives if essential. If sectors specifically related to food handling, rural transportation, or household necessaries expand in the vicinity of backwoods with correct caution for setting and also hazardous labor, and also without losing cultivable land, can instead conserve agriculture homes from losing lands, assistance sustaining farming manufacturing as well as meeting other expenditures consisting of those for education and learning. The poor, marginal as well as small farmhouse participants are found to have actually invested share of their income from alternative off-farm activities (for example, from livestock rearing) as well as markets in their agriculture farming, which marks a better administration of their agriculture farming as well as land. This shows an improved and also encouraging country economic situation.